We determined the contents of 11 heavy metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Rb, Pb and Tl) in roadside soils in four different environments along the Qinghai–Tibet highway. Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb were identified as traffic-related metals through multivariate statistical analysis. The relationship between the contents of these THZ1 traffic-related metals and the distance to the road edge showed three different distribution patterns: an exponential decline; exponential growth; and fluctuation around a fixed value. The CFs for the traffic-related metals ranged from no pollution to considerable pollution and the Nemero Synthesis Indexes of these heavy metals ranged from no pollution to severe pollution, suggesting a potential risk to wildlife and livestock. The enrichment level and roadside distance affected varied considerably between the four landscapes, with the highest contents of heavy metals at site TTH (alpine steppe), followed by sites DX and NQ (alpine meadow), with the lowest contents at site GM (alpine desert). Although transportation was the main cause of increased contents of the traffic-related metals in roadside environments, regional differences (wind speed and terrain) had significant relationship with the enrichment level of these traffic-related metals in roadside soils. Cd made the largest contribution to the enrichment of soils along the Qinghai–Tibet highway. TTH was the key area for soil environment monitoring for its obvious heavy mental enrichment along the Qinghai–Tibet highway. The soils at one of the sites had high natural contents of As and Cr, which should be of concern to both researchers and local governments.