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1 year ago

The Qinghai ndash Tibet highway has a length of

We determined the contents of 11 heavy metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Rb, Pb and Tl) in roadside soils in four different environments along the Qinghai–Tibet highway. Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb were identified as traffic-related metals through multivariate statistical analysis. The relationship between the contents of these THZ1 traffic-related metals and the distance to the road edge showed three different distribution patterns: an exponential decline; exponential growth; and fluctuation around a fixed value. The CFs for the traffic-related metals ranged from no pollution to considerable pollution and the Nemero Synthesis Indexes of these heavy metals ranged from no pollution to severe pollution, suggesting a potential risk to wildlife and livestock. The enrichment level and roadside distance affected varied considerably between the four landscapes, with the highest contents of heavy metals at site TTH (alpine steppe), followed by sites DX and NQ (alpine meadow), with the lowest contents at site GM (alpine desert). Although transportation was the main cause of increased contents of the traffic-related metals in roadside environments, regional differences (wind speed and terrain) had significant relationship with the enrichment level of these traffic-related metals in roadside soils. Cd made the largest contribution to the enrichment of soils along the Qinghai–Tibet highway. TTH was the key area for soil environment monitoring for its obvious heavy mental enrichment along the Qinghai–Tibet highway. The soils at one of the sites had high natural contents of As and Cr, which should be of concern to both researchers and local governments.

1 year ago

Table Fig xA Total climate forcing

Changing from conventional to conservation tillage, which aims to reduce tillage and GF 109203X disturbance in rice based cropping systems, such as rice–wheat or rice-rape systems, could sequester −0.78 t CO2-eq ha−1yr−1 (Table 1). CH4 and N2O emission from rice with reduced tillage decreased and increased by 17% and 48% compared to conventional tillage. With a total technical potential of −1.89 t CO2-eq ha−1yr−1 (Table 1), adoption of conservation tillage in rice-based cropping systems could be a good mitigation measure. If the change in N2O emissions with adoption of reduced tillage from the upland crop during the non-rice growing season is included, the Technical potential reducedtillage from rice-based cropping systems is estimated at −1.54 t CO2-eq ha−1yr−1.
Integrated rice-fish, rice-duck or rice-fish-duck farming reduced CH4 emissions significantly by 23%, and increased N2O emissions by 4% compared to the rice-only cropping system. The increase in N2O emissions was not significant and neuromuscular junction could be due to very few data points (n = 8). Technical potential Rice-fish-ducksystem was estimated to be −0.86 t CO2-eq ha−1yr−1 ( Table 1, Fig. 2).

1 year ago

MODIS images are provided with atmospheric correction applied

Fig. 2. Sampling location.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 3. (a) Scatter plot of water reflectance (ρ) against observed TSS using the NIR band and (b) Validation result for Eq. (7) using data collected on November 7, 2011.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The code interpolates ρatmi, Tratmi, and Satmi from a precomputed lookup table whereas the gaseous transmission functions Blebbistatin computed using a semi-empirical approach. Detail of the algorithm (Eq.  (1)) and results of validation work are widely reported ( Kotchenova and Vermote, 2007, Kotchenova et al., 2006 and Vermote and Saleous, 2006).
MODIS red and NIR images corresponding to the field water sampling dates (i.e. 27 November 2010, 13 May 2011 and 7 November 2011) were downloaded. The red (620–670 nm) and NIR (841–876 nm) bands labeled ‘MOD09GQ’ are available on a nearly daily basis at 250 m spatial resolution. The images provided in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) include quality assessment (QA) information seed provides vital clues on the usability and usefulness of the data product for particular science application.

1 year ago

The following are the supplementary data related

The following are the supplementary data related to this article.Fig. S1. Correlations of PM2.5 and PM10 in Zhuhai (A), Wuhan (B) and total population (C).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slideFig. S2. Effects of PM and FRS on HRV in Zhuhai. Values calculated from the regression models, adjusted for alcohol use, BMI, physical activity, passive smoking, BIIE 0246 rate, PM2.5 and personal sampling time. Data included 20 and 14 (low FRS) and 29 and 19 (high FRS) in low PM10 and high PM10 groups, respectively (total n = 82).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slideFig. S3. Effects of PM10 and FRS on HRV in total population. Values calculated from the regression models, adjusting for alcohol use, BMI, physical activity, passive smoking, heart rate, PM2.5 and personal sampling time and study site (Zhuhai = 0, Wuhan = 1). Data included 28 and 25 (low FRS) and 53 and 46 (high FRS) in low PM10 and high PM10 groups, respectively (total n = 152).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide

1 year ago

Cation losses by hydrological processes are strongly

The cis–trans isomerization easily occurs, and the barrier of conversion tran- to cis-ONO–NO2 is 7.57 kcal/mol, which can compare with the number reported by Liu and Goddard (2012), 4.4 kcal/mol. Such a low barrier could lead to a fast equilibrium between cis- and trans-ONO–NO2 at room temperature.
3.4. Hydrolysis of N2O4 isomers
In the marine environment, simulation of the heterogeneous reaction in the presence of water vapor much more resembles the real atmospheric environment than a dry one. Thus, in this BIBW 2992 work, the reactions of H2O with sym-O2N–NO2, trans-ONO–NO2, and cis-ONO–NO2 on the (100) surface of NaCl have been considered.
At the (100) surface of NaCl, the interaction of H2O with sym-O2N–NO2 further forms one complex, H2O–sym-O2N–NO2 (NaCl), with − 7.78 kcal/mol association energies. The H2O–sym-O2N–NO2 (NaCl) dissociates to HNO3 + HONO via a five-membered ring transition state TS4 with 33.79 kcal/mol energy above H2O + sym-O2N–NO2. As the reaction takes place, the two NO2 units of sym-O2N–NO2 start to depart from each other. The O atom of H2O approaches an N atom of one NO2 unit on the surface of NaCl, while an H atom of H2O approaches to an O atom of the other NO2 unit. At the transition state, as shown as TS4 in Fig. 4, the two NO2 units match the H and OH fragments of H2O, respectively, to form the HONO and HNO3 product molecules. As a result, the reaction is not kinetically favorable. Moreover, the reaction is endothermic by 9.39 kcal/mol, and is not thermo-dynamically favorable.

1 year ago

Oil based drilling fluid has been

A double phase BMS265246 of white oil–water emulsion, O/W (1) → W/O → O/W (2), was induced by the in situ surface activation of CaCO3 nanoparticles via adsorption different amounts of amphiphilic molecules.
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prs.rt(\"abs_end\");
Keywords
CaCO3 nanoparticles; White oil; Sodium stearate; Absorption; In situ surface activation; Double phase inversion
1. Introduction
Pickering emulsion investigated by Pickering for the first time has been applied in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutics and oil extraction industry due to their advantages such as low emulsifier usage, low toxic effects, environmentally friendly and high emulsion stability, etc. [9], [10], [11], [12], [13] and [14]. Many reports have described inorganic nanoparticles easily adsorb amphiphilic compound in an aqueous medium, thus changing the surface wettability [15], [16], [17] and [18]. By interaction with the amphiphilic compound, the inorganic nanoparticles can be activated in situ and become surface-active particles. The changes of wettability may induce a phase inversion, W/O → O/W or O/W → W/O, or a double phase inversion, O/W (1) → W/O → O/W (2), if the concentration of amphiphilic compound is increased to be large enough [19].

1 year ago

Preparation of electrolyte solutions and NOM

In this Omecamtiv mecarbil investigation, a detailed methodology to study surface interactions between aquatic NOM and membranes is described. Gartempe River NOM and Brittany River NOM, both rigorously characterized in previous studies, were selected as model humic and biopolymer aquatic NOM isolates, respectively. Two manufactured membranes (PA and PS) were selected due to their different properties. AFM was used as a sensitive technique that allows the study of specific and non-specific interactions at the interface [14]. Moreover, AFM can be adapted to closely mimic engineered water systems or aquatic environments by the measurement of interacting forces in solution of varied but controlled chemistry. The dominant mechanisms that govern NOM–membrane interactions as a function of their physicochemical characteristics and solution chemistry were proposed and correlated to the results of previous studies. The merit of this research is to advance our fundamental understanding of conditioning film formation during NOM-fouling, which would aid in the design and optimization of membrane coatings.